Service Dogs


Cindy Moore,
Copyright 1995-1996

Table of Contents

Please note that while legally speaking, therapy dogs are NOT "service dogs" and NOT entitled to the same benefits that service dogs are (entrance to any public building or transportation), I have included them in this document as a related function for dogs. As you read this, please keep in mind that according to the American Disabilities Act (federal) any dog assisting a person with a disability is considered a service dog (exclusive of therapy dogs). Service dogs are entitled to freely access buildings and transportation (buses, trains, planes). Proof or certification is not required although many organizations that train service dogs give their handlers some sort of ID for their dog.

I have briefly described various "types" of services dogs and listed resources (books, organizations) for each. I have in addition profiled several specific organizations to give you a further "feel" for how these groups work.

Dogs for the Blind

My thanks to Rusty Wright for the information on Guide Dogs. Thanks also to Carla Campbell, who contributed substantial additional information.

Dogs can be trained to guide blind people so that they are able to negotiate the world otherwise unassisted. They serve as, quite literally, the eyes for their owner. It is illegal anywhere in the US, or Canada, or Britain, and most other countries, to deny a blind person guided by a dog access to any public place. This includes stores, restaurants, banks, and anywhere else that dogs might be otherwise prohibited. The Americans with Disabilities Act in the US is quite clear on this point. The training for such dogs is quite demanding, as the dog must be able to navigate sidewalks, streets, stairs -- avoiding all obstacles, including overhead ones that may injure its owner (but not itself). They must be able to ignore all distractions while doing their work.

Most commonly referred to as "Seeing Eye Dogs" or "Guide Dogs," there are in reality many organizations in the US that provide guide dogs for blind people. However, while Guide Dogs for the Blind is on the west coast (along with Guide Dogs of the Desert and Guide Dogs of America, both in southern California, and Eye Dog Foundation in Arizona) and The Seeing Eye (among many others) is on the east, nearly all 15 schools in the United States serve people nationwide. In fact, people can obtain a dog from any of the schools, save five (which serve only their own geographical regions), and many dogs from The Seeing Eye, Leader Dogs, Guiding Eyes and the other schools work on the west coast, while many dogs from Guide Dogs for the Blind work all around the country. Geographical location is only one factor in selecting a guide dog training school to attend, and rarely is it the most important.

This is not the case in all countries with multiple guide dog training facilities. In the U.K., for example, the Guide Dogs for the Blind Association (GDBA) operates several regional centers, and sends its applicants to the center nearest their home for training. All these regional centers are "branches" or "campuses" of the GDBA, unlike the diverse American dog guide schools, which are completely independent from one another. Unlike American schools, the GDBA's regional training centers are centrally controlled, operating under the same set of policies, drawing from the same budget and using the same training methods. In the United States and Canada, only Guide Dogs for the Blind has any "branches" or presence outside their central facility. Guide Dogs for the Blind is the first US guide dog training program to operate two facilities under the same administration, with its new campus in Boring, Oregon (the first class graduated September 1995).

The breeds used are yellow and black Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs, usually. Others can be used, such as Golden Retrievers, but usually the centers prefer to use dogs with a high recognition potential and some breeds simply seem to be better at being trained for guide service.

The breeds most commonly used as dog guides are Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs. Approximately 60-70% of all working guides in the U.S. are Labradors. (Yellow, black and chocolate labs are all used, though most Labradors used as guide dogs are yellow or black labs and some schools specifically do not use chocolates.) Other breeds, such as Boxers, Flat and Curly Coated Retrievers, Border Collies, Huskies, Doberman Pinchers, Rhodesian Ridgebacks, Australian Shepherds, German Short-Haired Pointers, Dalmatians, and even Standard Poodles are occasionally used by some programs. Flat-coated Retrievers, in particular, appear to be gaining popularity with guide dog training establishments. Crosses of many of these breeds are also used, by some schools, with Lab-Golden, Lab-GSD and GSD-Huskie crosses most common. (In Britain and Australia, Labrador/Golden and Labrador-Poodle crosses ("Labradoodles") are frequently used as guides, and far more crosses are used, in general, than by the U.S. schools.)

Some centers have their own breeding programs, such as Guide Dogs; others use local breeders. The trend does seem to be toward proprietary breeding programs, although many of the stock, if not used as guide dogs will also compete in the more usual kennel club events. For example, CH Lobuff's Bare Necessities (black Labrador Retriever) was bred by the Guide Dog Foundation for the blind and is producing puppies for both the ring and the foundation.

Labs, Goldens and Shepherds are most popular as guides due to their temperament, intelligence, versatility, size and availability. Dogs trained as guide dogs must be intelligent, willing workers, large enough to comfortably guide in harness and small enough to be easily controlled and fit comfortably under restaurant tables and on buses and other forms of public transit. The three common breeds used for this work were selected because a large number of individuals of these breeds met the requirements necessary for a good guide dog and these breeds could most easily be matched with the widest range of blind people and their needs in a guide. Additionally, these three breeds are popular in the United States and obtaining them for training or supplementing breeding stock has proved easier than obtaining less common, but perhaps equally suitable breeds.

Families who raise the puppies simply train them in basic dog obedience, and stress lots of socialization and good manners. For example, if you go to a dog show, you are likely to see several such puppies there, learning to take it all in stride. The dogs go back for their formal training when they're about 1.5 years old, although they can go back as young as 1 year old.

Children are usually preferred as puppy raisers, hence many coordinate with 4-H programs. Interestingly enough, the puppies raised by kids are more likely to make it through the formal guide dog training. The difference is not drastic, but is "significant." Volunteer puppy raisers are encouraged to expose their charges to as many new experiences as possible, observing the pups' reactions and providing positive reassurance and security for the puppies as they experience crowds, cars, strange buildings, other animals and much more. They also teach the dogs some of the basic obedience commands such as "sit" and "down," but the dogs' instructors will insure that the dogs know these and other obedience commands in addition to instructing them in guide work, itself.

When dogs go back for their training they're carefully screened for any hip abnormalities and other health problems. If the hips aren't very good they're immediately "retired." The formal training takes about 6 months.

Dogs can fail for a variety of reasons. As you might guess, some dogs don't transition well from living in a puppy raiser's home to living in the kennels and others just get stressed out and fail. The puppy raiser gets the option of keeping a dog that failed. If the puppy raiser can't keep the dog they can place it in a home. Waiting lists for such dogs are usually several years long!

Before a guide dog is given to a blind person the blind person must usually attend training at center. This training is several weeks long and during this time the blind person will live on site. People coming back to get a replacement dog usually take a "refresher" class.

A few smaller programs conduct "in home" training, in which an instructor brings a trained dog to the student and trains the team in their own home area. This is the most rapidly growing area of dog guide training, with three new home training programs started since 1990. Most of these programs are small 1-2 trainer operations and do not ever plan to serve as many people as the residential programs can. All home training programs currently limit their service to their own region of the country, serving only those applicants in their own and neighboring states.

There are pros and cons to both types of training, and they serve people with different needs and expectations. The majority of guide dog handlers still choose to attend class at a residential training facility to receive and train with their dogs.

There are, in addition to residential training schools and home training programs, a few private trainers of dog guides and a few blind people who train their own guides.

There are 15 established programs in the US which train dog guides for the blind (as well as several in Canada and in other countries around the world, of course.) Of these, Fidelco, Southeastern, two new schools in New York state, (Upstate Guide Dog Association and Freedom Guide Dogs), and a very recently established program in Oregon (Northwest Guiding Eyes) serve only people from their own "region." The rest serve anyone from the United States or abroad.


Pfaffenberger, Clarence J. The new knowledge of dog behavior. Foreword by J. P. Scott. Consultant on genetics: Benson E. Ginsburg. New York, Howell Book House, 1963.
Gives an excellent history of how Guide Dogs was started, and has other interesting information.
Pfaffenberger, Clarence J., et al., with the editorial assistance of Sarah F. Scott. Guide Dogs for the Blind, Their Selection, Development, and Training. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co.; distributors for the U.S. and Canada, Elsevier/North Holland, 1976.
Many specific details on the genetics, training, 4-H project coordination, and so forth. Includes a history of the organization.
Harrington, Paula. Looking ahead: Guide Dogs for the Blind. 1st ed. San Rafael, CA: Guide Dogs for the Blind, c1990.
This one is sort of a "coffee table" book; lots of nice color photographs, and it covers the history of Guide Dogs, the training (both for the dog and the blind person), the 4-H puppy raisers, and lots of other stuff.


Guide Dogs for the Blind
Southwest Guide Dog Foundation, San Antonio TX
Fidelco Guide Dog Foundation
P.O. Box 142, Bloomfield,CT 06002. 203-243-5200
Guide Dog Foundation
371 Jericho Turnpike, Smithtown, New York 11787. 516-265-2121

Hearing and Signal Dogs

Other dogs are trained to assist deaf people, with varying degrees of impairment. They alert their owner to a variety of sounds, usually by coming up to the person and going back to the source of the sound. They will signal on door bell and knocking, phones, smoke alarms, crying babies and much more. In the US, they enjoy the same rights of access as guide dogs and are to be permitted anywhere, although since they are not as widely recognized, their owners often have to display an identification card even though this is not legally required (cf the U.S. ADA legislation).


See below
American Humane Association
5351 S. Roslyn Street, Englewood, Colorado 80111. 303-779-1400.
Audio Dogs
27 Crescent Street, Brooklyn, New York 11208. 212-827-2792.
Dogs for the Deaf
10175 Wheeler Road, Central Point, OR, 97502. 800-990-DOGS, fax 541-826-6696. Website:, email Verified Dec 2000.
Guide Dog Foundation
371 Jericho Turnpike, Smithtown, New York 11787. 516-265-2121.
International Hearing Dog, Inc.,
Martha Foss (current president and Director),, // Verified Oct. '98.
NEADS (National Education for Assistance Dog Service)
See below
San Francisco SPCA, Hearing Dog Program
2500 16th Street, San Francisco, CA 94103. 415-554-3020. Verified March '92.
Sound Companions
contact Connie Kniseley at (serves the mid-Atlantic states in the US). Verified July '96.
Handi-Dogs, Inc.
PO Box 12563, Tucson, Arizona 85732. 602-326-3412 or 602-325-6466.
The National Information Center on Deafness at Gallaudet University, publishes a fact sheet on hearing ear dogs. It can be obtained by sending $1.00 to NICD, Gallaudet University, 800 Flordia Ave., NE, Washington, DC 20002. The fact sheet discusses commonly asked questions about hearing ear dogs and it lists training programs across the U.S.

Assistance Dogs

Here is a large and varied category of dogs who assist their owners in ways other than the traditional guide dogs or hearing dogs do. These dogs might help pick things up, open and close doors, pull wheelchairs, and dozens of other physical assistance tasks.


Assistance Dog Providers in the United States by Carla Stiverson & Norm Pritchett.
Pflaumer, Sharon Seizure-alert dogs Dog World 77(l): 42-43, January 1992
The article says you can contact Reina Berner, The Epilepsy Institute, 67 Irving Place, New York, NY 10003 where a program of seizure -alerting dogs is being developed.


Assistance Dogs International
See below
Canine Companions for Independence
See below
Canine Helpers for the Handicapped Inc
Beverly Underwood, 5705 Ridge Rd, Lockport, NY 14094. (716)433-4035, voice/tty
Canine Working Companions, Inc
Pat McNamara, Director, RD 2 Box 170. Gorton Lake Road. Waterville, NY 13480. (315)861-7770 voice/tdd
East Coast Assistance Dogs
West Granby CT;
Independence Dogs, Inc.
146 State Line Road, Chadds Ford, PA 19317. 610-358-2723 Phone; 610-358-5314 Fax;
National Eduction for Assistance Dog Service (NEADS)
See below

Canine Companions for Independence

CCI was founded in 1975. They estimate that each of their dogs takes about $20,000 to train, a cost covered by donations and volunteer work. It is a national-wide organization with many regional chapters.
National Headquarters
P.O. Box 446, 2965 Dutton Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95402-0446. 707-577-1700 voice; 707-577-1756 TDD; email:
SW Regional Center
PO Box 4568, Oceanside CA 92052. 760-754-3300 Voice; 760-754-3308 TDD
NC Regional Center
4989 State Route 37 East, Delaware, OH 43015-9682. 614-548-4447 V/TDD
NW Regional Center
1215 Sebastopol Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95407-6834. 707-579-1985 V/TDD
SE Regional Center
P.O. Box 547511, Orlando, FL 32854-7511. 407-834-2555 V/TDD
NE Regional Center
P.O. Box 205, Farmingdale, NY 11735-0205. 516-694-6938 V/TDD
This organization is involved in training dogs to assist handicapped people. They train signal dogs for the deaf, and dogs for physically disabled or developmentally disabled persons.

Canine Companions for Independence has provided highly skilled assistance dogs for people with disabilities since 1975. CCI started as a small, at-home organization and has grown into a dynamic non-profit agency with five regional centers nationwide.

A Canine Companion's specialized training starts in a volunteer puppy raiser's home between 7 and 8 weeks of age. The puppy raiser is responsible for the young dog's care, socialization, and the teaching of basic commands. At about one year of age, the dog is returned to a CCI regional training center for six months of advanced training by a professional CCI instructor. The dog is then ready for an intensive two-to-three week training camp where its new owner learns to work with a fully trained dog.

It costs more than US$20,000 to breed, raise, and train each Canine Companion, yet recipients pay only a US$25 application fee and US$100 for training seminar supplies. The dog is provided completely free of charge. CCI depends entirely on donations; it does not receive government funds. CCI also relies heavily on the dedication of its many volunteers, who play a vital role in CCI's mission to provide exceptional dogs for exceptional people.

The breeds CCI uses for service and social dogs are black and yellow Labs, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherds, and Lab/Golden Retriever mix. CCI is moving away from using German Shepherds for two reasons: first, a lot of the public view (and fear) German Shepherds as "police" or "guard" dogs, and second, German Shepherds bond very strongly to people and the program is difficult on them because first they form a strong bond to their puppy raiser, then to their trainer when they go back to CCI, and then to their eventual handicapped owner. For signal dogs they use Corgis and Border Collies.

CCI will work with people in need of assistance to determine if a properly trained dog can provide that assistance. Dogs can be taught to retrieve a variety of things -- even to distinguish between specific items -- and to manipulate a variety of objects. Monkeys have been tried for this purpose, as they are more dexterous. However, they are not as reliably trainable and are very expensive, so dogs present a much more practical alternative. Given some extensions, such as rope handles on doors and light switches, dogs can give a disabled person complete mobility within her or his home.

CCI finds and trains a variety of dogs for different forms of assistance: hearing dogs, physically disabled assistant dogs, even as therapy dogs. They are all neutered, as with guide dogs. People who are to receive one of the dogs are required to attend a two-week seminar to learn how to communicate and care for their assistance. As needed, the people and their dogs are provided with permits that identify the dogs as licensed canine companions -- this is enough to gain undisputed entry into most places, as with the more well-known Seeing Eye dogs.

Assistance Dog International (ADI)

ADI is a non-profit organization which is an association of other non-profit organizations which do training for hearing and mobility assist dogs. They are working on a test for street certification for the hearing and mobility assist dogs. The idea is to come up with a test that can be the standard for the US rather than having each state/county having different standards. They also have information on many training organizations in the US. They check out reports of problems with assist dog trainers (read rip off artists).

ADI addresses

Robin Dickson (503) 826-9220 Dogs for the Deaf, Inc (ALSO ACTIVE IN) 10175 Wheeler Road Central Point, OR 97502
Sheila O'Brian (978) 835-3304 p.o. box 213 West Boylston MA 01583
Newsletter for ADI
Micheal Roche (303) 234-9512 p.o. box 150217 Lakewood, CO 80215
Member programs:
TOP DOG TRAINING PROGRAM 5315 E. Broadway Blvd. Tucson, AZ 85711 (520) 747-4945 Members of ADI

Paws With A Cause (PAWS)

For more info, see

National Education for Assistance Dog Services, Inc.

Thanks to Tom Rich: NEADS client & board member.

NEADS is a non-profit organization that trains hearing, service, specialty, social and service dogs for the classroom.

A hearing dog responds to important sounds such as fire alarm or smoke alarm, telephone ringing, door knock or bell, baby crying a person's name being called or household appliances. The dog goes back and forth to the sound until his deaf or hard of hearing human partner follows him to the source of the sound.

A service dog retrieves and moves for a person who has a physical disability or uses a wheelchair. The dog goes for help, picks up things that drop, retrieves from high selves, turns on light switches, pulls the wheelchair and carriers essentials.

A specialty dog does many of the same tasks for a person who has multiple disabilities, such as deafness and physical disabilities, and needs more specialized help. Services can be trained as needed.

A social dog works for children and adults who cannot assume total responsibility for a working dog but can benefit from the therapeutic value of a dog. They are trianed for residential settings such as nursing homes, halfway houses and psychotherapy centers. They have the advanced skills of a service dog but can be sometimes handled by a third party. They are certified for public access.

A service dog for the classroom is an innovative teaching tool used by social workers, therapists, early education and special needs teachers working with children with physical, emotional and developmental disabilities. The dogs help them teach basic concepts like "up," "under," "down." Children with histories of sexual or physical abuse often need a catalyst to prompt disclosure. An assistance dog, non-judgemental and unconditionally loving, provides the help necessary to identify children in crisis.

NEADS uses facility-based education, a concept of impressive success. This developes a strong working relationship between client ad dog while training together for two weeks, learning to work as a team under the expert supervision of staff. When they leave clients are then fully responsible for the handling, care and health of their with continued NEADS outreach support.

NEADS has trained close to 600 dogs for the above mentioned work. This year is NEADS 20th year of providing assistance dog services. NOTE: that 75% of the dogs trained by NEADS are pound/shelter rescues.

For more information : Call (978) 422-9064 Voice/TDD 9:00 - 4:00 EST or FAX (978) 422-3255. Monday thru Friday office hours. Or write: NEADS, P.O. Box 213, West Boylston, MA. 01583. Or email: (Verified Feb '97.)

Therapy Dogs

Dogs are quite often used in therapy. Typically this involves visiting hospitals, care facilities, nursing homes, etc. to cheer up patients. There are a variety of groups that train therapy dogs, some local and some national. Some use the AKC Canine Good Citizen test to choose suitable dogs, others have devised their own Temperament Tests. You should note that therapy dogs ARE NOT considered BY LAW in the United States to have the same status as SERVICE DOGS. Service dogs directly assist their handicapped owners with daily tasks in some fashion; therapy dogs are handled by their owners to assist others at specific times, such as visits to a facility. Thus laws mandating access for service dogs, who must accompany their owners do not apply to dogs who need not be with their owners at all times but rather work at specific locations.


A national organization that dispenses information about therapy dogs is the Delta Society, 289 Perimeter Rd. East, Renton WA 98055-1329, vox: 206-226-7357, tty: 800-809-2714; or via email: They put out a magazine called Interactions as well.

Another well-regarded organization is Therapy Dogs International (TDI) and they may be reached at

In addition many local humane societies, breed clubs, and obedience clubs do some hospital visitation.


*. Therapy Dog.
Therapy dog training. A good psychology book with gentle training methods.
Harrington, Paula. Looking ahead: Guide Dogs for the Blind. 1st ed. San Rafael, CA: Guide Dogs for the Blind, c1990.
This one is sort of a "coffee table" book; lots of nice color photographs, and it covers the history of Guide Dogs, the training (both for the dog and the blind person), the 4-H puppy raisers, and lots of other stuff.
Pfaffenberger, Clarence J., et al., with the editorial assistance of Sarah F. Scott. Guide Dogs for the Blind, Their Selection, Development, and Training. Amsterdam; New York: Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co.; distributors for the U.S. and Canada, Elsevier/North Holland, 1976.
Many specific details on the genetics, training, 4-H project coordination, and so forth.

Therapy Dogs- Training Your Dog to Reach Others, by Kathy Diamond Davis.

"Social acknowledgements for children with disabilities: effects of service dogs." Bonnie Mader, et. al. Child Development 60:6 p1529-34.

"The Animal Preference Test and its relationship to behavioral problems in young children." E.B. Rojas, Journal of Personality Assessment 57:1, p141-8. Mefford, Eleanor M Bringing Up Baby Dog World 77(2): 36-38,39 Feb, 1992

(article is about raising dogs to be used with young children suffering from socialization problems and language abilities problems)
Ashby, Ann Gritt Healing war's wounds Dog World 77(7): 40-43, July 1992
(article is about using animals as therapy for mentally ill veterans)


Delta Society
289 Perimeter Rd. East, Renton, WA 98055-1329
Delta Society Pet Partners Programs
289 Perimeter Rd. East, Renton, WA 98055-1329. (206) 226-7357 (voice); (800) 809-2714 (TDD); (206) 235-1076 (fax);
Therapy Dogs Inc.
Ann Butrick, 2416 E. Fox Farm Rd., Cheyenne, WY 82007. Phone (307) 638-3222
Therapy Dogs International
Ursula Kempe Administrator 88 Bartley Rd. Flanders NJ 07836. Phone 973-252-9800, fax 973-252-7171. Email, web page
Therapy Pet Pals of Texas
Kathryn Lashmit, 807 Brazos St. Suite 312, Austin, TX 78701
Pet Assisted Therapy Facilitation Certificate Program
Pearl Salotto, State University of New York. Phone (401) 463-5809
Francie Glatt, 1504 N. Wells, Chicago, IL 60610. Phone 312-280-0266;
Love on a Leash
Liz Palika, 3809 Plaza Dr., #107-309 Oceanside, CA 92056. Phone (619) 630-4824
PAWS - Pets are Wonderful Support
P.O. Box 460489, San Francisco, CA 94146-0489. Phone (415) 824-4040
Pets and People Foundation
Sally Jean Alexander, Volunteer Coordinator, 11 Apple Crest Road, Weston, MA 02193
The Human & Animal Bonding Association of Canada (HABAC)
1111 Finch Ave. West, Suite 453, Downsview, On M3J 2E5 CANADA. Tel (fax) 416-441-3212.
St. John Ambulance Therapy Dogs
Doreen Newell, Provincial Co-ordinator, 1199 Deyell 3rd Line, Millbrook, On. L0A 1G0 CANADA. Tel (fax) 705-932-3626
International Association of Assistance Dog Partners (IAADP) If you know someone with an Assistance dog, tell them to send a 9 x 12 envelope, self addressed, w/2 postage stamps to: IAADP * P.O. Box 1326 * Sterling Hts., MI 48311. They will receive a free copy of the IAADP quarterly newsletter, plus information about the Assistance Dog Protection program.
Cen/SHARE (Center for the Study of Human-Animal Relationships and their Environments)
Research and education, including studies of service dogs and their owners. The mailing address is 80 Ford Hall, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455.

Service Dogs FAQ
Cindy Moore,

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