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Updated December 1997
Before 1750, most British people worked in agriculture. The onset of the Industrial Revolution brought great changes to family life. In Yorkshire, small communities grew up around coal mines, textile mills and factories. People were drawn to these areas to seek work from as far away as Scotland. They brought with them a breed known as the Clydesdale Terrier, or Paisley Terrier. These were primarily working dogs, much larger than today's Yorkies, and were used for catching rats and other small mammals.
These terriers were inevitably crossed with other types of terrier, probably the English Black and Tan Toy Terrier, and the Skye Terrier; it is also thought that at some stage the Maltese Terrier was crossed with these breeds to help produce long coats. As the outline of the Maltese resembles that of many of today's Yorkies, this is very likely. Unfortunately, no records in the form of Pedigrees exist to confirm these crosses (possibly because of the poor level of literacy in these times), but a great deal is known about the type of people who bred them, and there can be no doubt that early breeders had a very clear idea of the type of dogs they were attempting to produce. We can see in today's Yorkies how strongly the terrier temperament has been retained.
In 1874 the first Yorkies were registered in the British Kennel Club stud book. They were referred to as "Broken Haired Scottish Terriers" or "Yorkshire Terriers", until 1886, when the Kennel Club recognised the Yorkshire Terrier as an individual breed. The first Yorkshire Terrier breed club was formed in 1898. During these early years, one who greatly influenced the breed was Lady Edith Wyndham-Dawson. Lady Edith was secretary of the Yorkshire Terrier Club for some time and did much early work for the improvement of the breed. Later, a Miss Palmer, who was Lady Edith's kennel maid, started her own Yorkie kennel under the "Winpal" prefix. When Lady Edith returned to Ireland at the start of World War I, Miss Palmer went to work for Mrs. Crookshank of the famous Johnstounburn prefix, a name with a long list of champions, which is now in the care of Daphne Hillman, who was entrusted with this prefix, and still uses it along with her own Yorkfold prefix.
Many others have worked very hard since these early years to improve this breed, and to these breeders much is owed. Many of their early dogs became the foundation stock of kennels in North America and elsewhere.
The most famous Yorkshire Terrier of modern times in the UK was CH Blairsville Royal Seal. He was by CH Beechrise Surprise and his dam was CH Blairsville Most Royale. "Tosha" to his friends (of whom he had many) was bred, owned and handled by Mr. Brian Lister and his wife, Rita. Tosha was definitely a 'King' among dogs and no one who saw him flowing around the ring could ever forget him. His prescence could be felt, even by a complete novice, and many say that just thinking of him brings a lump to the throat. During his show career Tosha won 50 CCs, all under different judges. He was 12 times Best In Show at all breed CH shows, and 16 times Reserve Best In Show. He took 33 Group wins, and went Reserve Best In Show at Cruft's in 1978, just as his dam had done before him. Tosha was Top Dog, all breeds, for two consecutive years. He became the sire of many prolific Champions and still features in the pedigree of many of today's Yorkies.
Ironically, when Royal Seal died, aged 15, in 1988, that year his breed record for the highest number of CCs in the breed was broken by Osman Sameja's CH Ozmilion Dedication "Jamie", who finished his show career with 52 CCs, although a few of these were duplicated under the same judges. Jamie also has two all breed CH show wins, and his many Toy group wins helped him to win the Top Dog title in 1987. The Ozmilion kennel is the top Yorkshire Terrier kennel of all time, and holds the record for the number of Champions produced.
Following on from this, Jamie's grandson, Ch. Ozmilion Mystification broke another record in 1997 by being the first Yorkie ever to win the coveted Best In Show award at the most prestigious dog show, Cruft's. "Justin" was retired after this event, having to his credit a total 51 CCs, 48 with Best of Breed, 22 Group wins, 9 Club BIS, and at All Breed Shows, 7 RBIS and 3 BIS awards. He was Top Yorkie from 1994-1997, Top Dog All Breeds 1996, Crufts Supreme Champion 1997, and Pedigree Chum Champion overall Stakes winner 1997.
Some record of achievement! In this same year, the great "Jamie" died.
Whilst CH Blairsville Royal Seal dominated the British show scene, his American counterpart, CH Cede Higgens was making his mark in the USA. These two dogs were both shown during the same era, and were inevitably, constantly being compared. However, although they were both outstanding specimens of the breed, those who had seen them both, agreed that they were totally different in type. Bred by C.D. Lawrence, Cede Higgens was closely line-bred to the Clarkwyns and Wildweir lines, by CH. Wildweir Pomp 'N Circumstance.
Another dog who had significant influence on the North American Yorkies was CH Finstal Royal Icing, bred by Sybil Pritchard in the UK and exported to the Jentre kennels after Sybil died. He is by CH Finstal Johnathan, who still has winning progeny in the UK today. Johnathan was looked after by Wendy White (Wenwytes) after Sybil's death, until he died in 1994 aged about 17.
The Yorkshire Terrier is also very popular in North America today. In 1992, Yorkies were #14 on the AKC's list of most popular breeds with 39,904 registrations. In 1994 they were #11, although registrations had dropped to 38,626.
It may seem strange that Yorkies have risen in popularity in North America while the number of registrations has dropped, but overall, AKC registration, is down (as is UK registration), with some popular breeds having dramatic reductions in the numbers now registered.
GENERAL APPEARANCE: Long-Coated, coat hanging quite straight and evenly down each side, a parting extending from nose to tail. Very compact and neat, carriage very upright conveying an important air. General outline conveying impression of vigorous and well proportioned body.
CHARACTERISTICS: Alert, intelligent toy terrier.
TEMPERAMENT: Spirited with even disposition
HEAD AND SKULL: Rather small and flat, not too prominent or round in skull, not too long in muzzle; black nose.
EYES: Medium, dark, sparkling, with sharp intelligent expression and placed to look directly forward. Not prominent. Edge of eyelids dark.
EARS: Small, V-shaped, carried erect, not too far apart, covered with short hair, colour very deep, rich tan.
MOUTH: Perfect, regular and complete scissor bite. i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws. Teeth well placed with even jaws.
NECK: Good reach
FOREQUARTERS: Well laid shoulders, legs straight, well covered with hair of rich golden tan a few shades lighter at the ends than at roots, not extending higher on forelegs than elbow.
BODY: Compact with moderate spring of rib, good loin. Level Back
HINDQUARTERS: Legs quite straight when viewed from behind, moderate turn of stifle. Well covered with hair of rich golden tan a few shades lighter at the ends than at roots, not extending higher on hindlegs than stifle.
FEET: Rounds; nails black
TAIL: Customarily docked to medium length with plenty of hair, darker blue in colour than rest of body, especially at the end of tail. Carried a little higher than level of back *
GAIT/MOVEMENT: Free with drive; straight action front and behind, retaining level topline.
COAT: Hair on body moderately long, perfectly straight (not wavy), glossy; fine silky texture, not woolly. Fall on head long, rich golden tan, deeper in colour at sides of head, about ear roots and on muzzle where it should be very long. Tan on head not to extend on to neck, nor must any sooty or dark hair intermingle with any of the tan.
COLOUR: Dark steel blue (not silver blue), extending from occiput to root of tail, never mingled with fawn, bronze or dark hair. Hair on chest rich, bright tan. All tan hair darker at the roots than in the middle, shading still lighter at the tips.
SIZE: Weight up to 3.1 kgs (7lbs)
FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree.
NOTE: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicals fully descended into the scrotum **
* In the UK it is now possible to show animals with undocked tails. As yet there is no recognised standard for the presentation, type, length or carriage of a full tail.
** It may also be possible now in the UK to show neutered animals, providing permission has been obtained from the Kennel Club in advance.
In the UK, the Yorkshire Terrier is traditionally displayed in line in the show ring, on its own individual wooden box, which is draped with a cover, usually red, but as there is no rule about the box cover, some exhibitors use blue or tartan covers. The Yorkie is still examined on the judge's table, as in most other countries. A ring full of mature Yorkies displayed on their little red boxes is truly a sight to behold!
The Yorkie coat does not shed, and does not have an undercoat, making Yorkies desirable for some people with allergies, and those who do not want a breed that has a messy moult. The correct texture of the coat is described as long, straight and silky. It will continue to grow unless trimmed. In fact, the Yorkie coat is very similar to human hair.
Special care must be taken to ensure that the hair around the anus of these dogs is kept clean. Because of their long hair, it is common for these dogs to become matted in this area, and this can lead to compacted faeces. Apart from making the dog very sore and uncomfortable, this may, if left unattended, cause more serious problems, such as fly strike, that would require veterinary assistance.
Yorkie puppies may have "tipped" or "tilted" ears until they are around 6 months old. I am frequently asked about this when owners purchase a 10 week old puppy with nice erect ears, only to find that the ears drop again around 4 months of age. This is often because at this time the Yorkie is shedding it's milk teeth and cutting it's adult teeth, which can cause the ears to go up and down daily, and owner's should not be unduly concerned during this natural stage. However, it is important to keep the hair on the top third of the ear flap trimmed very short. This will stop the ears from being weighed down by excessive hair until they are firmly "set". Also the hair should be plucked from inside the ears, and ears checked regularly for excessive wax and for mites.
Yorkies should also have special attention paid to their eyes, and teeth. The long hair should be prevented from falling into their eyes, thus causing irritation and infection, either by tying it back or trimming it. As with most Toy breeds, Yorkies may have a tendency to tartar build-up on the teeth, but if regular attention is given to the teeth this should not be a serious problem.
Yorkies do not have an undercoat, and even with a long coat, they feel the cold very easily, and like most Toy breeds prefer the comfort of cosiness and warmth. They enjoy being pampered. Yorkies are difinitely not a breed to keep outside in a kennel. When going out in cold or wet weather they will appreciate a warm dog coat to wear.
Although regular grooming may be an added expense for the Yorkie owner, Yorkies eat very little, and are not expensive to feed.
Obedience training is highly recommended for Yorkies. Although few Yorkies compete in obedience in the UK today, a little dog called "Shandy" did compete successfully, and was placed in the highly acclaimed obedience championships at Cruft's in 1973. All breeds can and do benefit nevertheless from basic obedience training.
* NB: The BVA/KC who conduct health screening schemes for inherited are now advising that Yorkies should undergo eye tests for PRA and late onset HC. These conditionas are under investigation in the UK for this breed. In the USA, many breeders already have their breeding stock tested for PRA.
All Yorkshire Terriers are born with smooth coats and are black with small tan points. It is only with maturity that the beautiful long, dark steel blue and shaded tan coat develops. This feature can vary in age depending on the individual, but when buying a puppy you can expect it to still be black on its body, and for its head markings to still be very "sooty" looking. In puppyhood this is not a fault. Some Yorkies do stay black, whilst others become very light and silver. Although these are considered faults for showing, it is impossible to determine in a young puppy what colour it will become as a young adult. In any case, the colour will not of course, affect the dog's quality as a companion.Do Yorkies come in Miniature and Standard varieties?
Many beginning Yorkie fanciers believe that there are two types of Yorkie, Miniature and Standard--this is not so. However, many pet Yorkies are somewhat larger than the show Yorkies; again this does not affect their suitability as pets or make them any less desirable as companions.How soon can a puppy be sold to a new home?
If a Yorkie is wanted only as a pet, a reputable breeder may be prepared to let a puppy go to a new home between 8-10 weeks of age (although 12 weeks is more desirable). A pet quality Yorkie will be far cheaper than a show quality specimen (which most breeders will not sell until much older). It is quite impossible to have any indication of show quality in this breed until the dog is at least 6 months of age.What Sex is best as a pet?
This is a matter of personal preference. Most breeders believe both dogs and bitches are equally loving, loyal and intelligent, and make good companions. A bitch may come into season from 6 months onwards, when extra care must be taken to prevent unwanted matings. Pet Yorkies are better neutered. This will prevent unwanted puppies and the possibility of disease in later life. Many breeders may not wish to issue registration papers for pet puppies, or may only do so on proof of neutering.What should I feed my Yorkie?
When collecting your puppy be sure to get a diet sheet from the breeder and try to stick to its recommendations, especially in the first few weeks. The breeder should also provide you with documentation of worming preparations given, any vaccinations the puppy may have had, and a pedigree form.How should I keep my Yorkie confined when travelling?
ALWAYS make sure that your dog is safe and secure when travelling in a vehicle. The best way to do this is to train it to travel in a special travelling box or crate (such as a Vari-Kennel). Should you need to brake suddenly, your little dog will then be less likely to be thrown forward and injured. Keeping your dog in a crate while travelling will also prevent it from distracting the driver and causing an accident.
One further word of warning, In some countries it is common to own a swimming pool. If you do, please ensure that your Yorkie cannot jump or fall into the pool in your absence. I have had reports from the USA of Yorkie's getting into pools and then being unable to get out again, with drastic consequences as the poor little dog becomes exhausted and drowns. If you do have a pool, please ensure that it is fenced off or covered when not in use.
* Highly recommended up to date book for the pet owner or those wishing to start out in the show ring.
** Another good little book, for both pet or new show owner.
uk Unless marked with this symbol these books may not be available in UK
Mrs Hazel Hammersley
4, Stookes Way
Hampshire GU46 6YY
Tel: 01252 871238
The Yorkshire Terrier Club of America
All club enquiries to the Secretary:
Mrs. Shirley A Patterson
PO Box 271
St Peters, PA 19470-0271
The Yorkshire Terrier Foundation, Inc.
This was founded by The Yorkshire Terrier Club of America to do research on health issues relating to Yorkies. A newsletter is published every three months. A contributions is required to receive newsletter.
$20 for individuals $40 for families $50 for businesses $100 for sponsors obtainable from the Treasurer: or from the Vice President: Donald Quinn Ms Betty Dullinger PO Box 10582 RFD 2 Box 542 Rock Hill Kezar Falls SC 29731-0582 ME 04047 (207)625-4665